Thessaloniki, the geographical and historical capital city of Macedonia during the centuries. GREECE.
Thessaloniki (Greek Θεσσαλονίκη), is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the region of Central Macedonia as well as the capital of the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thessaloniki is Greece’s second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre, and a major transportation hub for the rest of southeastern Europe; its commercial port is also of great importance for Greece and the southeastern European hinterland.
The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general, and is considered to be Greece’s cultural capital.

Thessaloniki, the geographical and historical capital city of Macedonia during the centuries. GREECE.

Thessaloniki (Greek Θεσσαλονίκη), is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the region of Central Macedonia as well as the capital of the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

Thessaloniki is Greece’s second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre, and a major transportation hub for the rest of southeastern Europe; its commercial port is also of great importance for Greece and the southeastern European hinterland.

The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general, and is considered to be Greece’s cultural capital.

ΤHE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

The Constraction of a New Slav-“macedonian” Alphabet was even a Yugoslavian Communist Affair

Picture A

These are the people from the first commission, who created the New-Slav- “Macedonian” alphabet in November 1944.
Left to right: Vasil Ilioski, Hristo Zografov, Krum Toshev, Dare Djambas, Venko Markovski, Mirko Pavlovski, Mihail Petrushevski, Hristo Prodanov, Georgi Kiselinov, Georgi Shoptraianov, Iovan Kostov (-ov and -ev means their Bulgarian descent)

Picture b

The name of (today) Fyrom-Skopje was until 1944 Vardaska.

From 1913 until its collapse on account of the German invasion, the Yugoslav (monarchist) Government adopted a policy of Serbinzation and de-Bulgarianisation of the Slavic idiom spoken in Vardar (FYROM); an idiom which was generally considered by foreign sources and Slavologists to be a Bulgarian dialect.

From the end of WW2 with the Communists in control of Yugoslavia, a similar yet project, with many differences however was undertaken with the linguism of Vardar. While efforts de-bulgarianise the idiom and bring it closer to the Serbo-Croat dialect were again undertaken (Multiple peices of evidence confirm this), communist rule and the subsuming of  Pseudo Slavo “Macedonism” as an ideology meant that Belgrade made a concerted effort to develope unique aspects of the language. Surenames in some cases are even recorded as having been changed from the traditional Bulgarian possessive ending ‘ov’ to an ending to an ‘ovski’ surename ending. Commitees were set up by the Yugoslav Commitern to “resolve” matters of a “Slavo-Macedonian” language and alphabet.

Venko Markovski, was one of the creators of the Slavo ‘Macedonian’ alphabet in 1944, but lost favour with Tito and fled to Bulgaria later on.

THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

Basil II of Constantinople in 1014 decided to end once and for all a war that had already lasted forty years. To break the spirit of the hated Bulgarians, he blinded all but 150 of 15,000 prisoners. The “lucky” 150 were blinded in one eye only. Every 100 blind men were guided by a one-eyed leader back to the Bulgarian capital of Ohdrid, whose ruler, Samuel , had received word that his army was returning to him. Samuel hastened to meet his men and found himself staring at thousand of helpless blind men. The sight was fatal. Samuel suffered a stroke on the spot and died two days later. (Basil II received the surname Bulgaroktonos, meaning “slayer of Bulgarians”)

Isaac Asimov’s Book of Facts By Isaac Asimov, page 225

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgars


THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)
Το άγνωστο λατομείο της Αλυκής Θάσου που έδωσε τα μάρμαρα στην Αμφίπολη
  ΣΤΑΥΡΟΣ ΤΖΙΜΑΣ
Τα πλοία πλεύριζαν την άκρη του λατομείου και έδεναν στις δέστρες, μεγάλες τρύπες που είχαν ανοίξει για τον σκοπό αυτό. Με ειδικές τροχαλίες, οι τεχνίτες ρυμουλκούσαν από τις πλαγιές το μάρμαρο και το κατέβαζαν στον πυθμένα του λατομείου, όπου το αναλάμβαναν οι γερανοί. 
 ΕΤΙΚΕΤΕΣ: 


Τούτη την εποχή η Αλυκή, μια από τις ομορφότερες παραλίες στα νοτιοανατολικά της Θάσου, βιώνει ημέρες δόξας. Βουλιάζει από τουρίστες, Ρουμάνους και Βούλγαρους κυρίως, αλλά και Σκανδιναβούς και Γερμανούς. Στη βραχώδη μύτη της μικροσκοπικής χερσονήσου, γυναικεία κορμιά απολαμβάνουν τον καλοκαιρινό ήλιο σε φυσικές μαρμάρινες «ξαπλώστρες» που μοιάζουν με μικρά παγόβουνα τεμαχισμένα αρμονικά, λες και έγιναν από ανθρώπινο χέρι. Ή μήπως έγιναν στ’ αλήθεια; Στα καταγάλανα νερά του ορμίσκου, υπερσύγχρονα ιστιοφόρα και πολυτελείς θαλαμηγοί αγκυροβολούν καταμεσής του μικρού κόλπου, καθώς δεν υπάρχει μουράγιο για να πιάσουν ή μαρίνα για να δέσουν. Χαρά Θεού για τους λιγοστούς ντόπιους, που τα καλοκαίρια ανοίγουν τα αραδιασμένα στην παραλία σπιτάκια τους, δουλεύουν κάποια γραφικά ταβερνάκια και εξασφαλίζουν ένα καλό εισόδημα. Και όμως, στην αρχαιότητα η Αλυκή γνώρισε (και) καλύτερες μέρες, οι οποίες αποτυπώνονται όχι μόνο στα λείψανα του αρχαίου οικισμού που βρίσκεται πίσω από τα σπίτια της παραλίας ανάμεσα σε πεύκα ή στην παρουσία ιερού και δύο βασιλικών και των μισοβυθισμένων στη θάλασσα λατομείων μαρμάρου, αλλά και στην εν εξελίξει ανασκαφή στην Αμφίπολη. Με μάρμαρο από την Αλυκή Θάσου είναι χτισμένος ο ταφικός περίβολος που ήρθε στο φως στον τύμβο του Καστά από την Κατερίνα Περιστέρη και τους συνεργάτες της και προκάλεσε παγκόσμιο θαυμασμό. Οχι μόνο για την αρμονία και την αρχιτεκτονική της κατασκευής, αλλά ίσως -ακόμα περισσότερο- για το πώς έφτασαν από τη Θάσο στην Αμφίπολη, την εποχή εκείνη και με τα τότε μέσα, δυόμισι χιλιάδες κυβικά μέτρα μαρμάρινων όγκων, που χρειάστηκαν για να περιφραχθεί ο μακεδονικός τύμβος! «Δεν είναι 100% σίγουρο, πρέπει να γίνει και μια ανάλυση, αλλά το πιο πιθανό είναι ότι ο περίβολος έχει χτιστεί με λευκό μάρμαρο Αλυκής Θάσου», λέει στην «Κ» η προϊσταμένη της ΙΗ΄ Εφορείας Κλασικών και Προϊστορικών Αρχαιοτήτων Καβάλας, Μαρία Νικολαΐδου. Μια απλή περιήγηση στη μαρμάρινη χερσόνησο, με οδηγό τις ανακαλύψεις των αρχαιολόγων, μεταφέρει τον επισκέπτη σε περιόδους της αρχαιότητας κατά τις οποίες η Αλυκή ήταν ο βασικός τροφοδότης, με υπέροχο λευκό μάρμαρο, βασιλείων, αυτοκρατόρων, πλουσίων, από την αρχαϊκή έως τη ρωμαϊκή και πρωτοβυζαντινή περίοδο. Εκεί ήταν το λατομείο, το μεγαλύτερο και σπουδαιότερο στη Θάσο, απ’ όπου απέκοπταν μαρμάρινους όγκους και τους τοποθετούσαν σε πλοιάρια με τη βοήθεια της μπίγας, ενός γερανού που είχαν επινοήσει για να σηκώνουν το βαρύτατο φορτίο. Τα πλοία πλεύριζαν την άκρη του λατομείου και έδεναν τους κάβους στις δέστρες, μεγάλες τρύπες που είχαν ανοίξει για τον σκοπό αυτό, αλλά και για να συγκρατούν τις ανυψωτικές μηχανές σε μη αποκολλημένα μάρμαρα. Από εκεί έφευγαν για προορισμούς της Μακεδονίας, της υπόλοιπης Ελλάδας, της Ρώμης μέχρι και την Αίγυπτο και την Περσία, κοσμώντας παλάτια, τάφους επιφανών και σπουδαία κτίρια. Με ειδικά «τύμπανα» (τροχαλίες), ρυμουλκούσαν από τις πλαγιές τους τεράστιες όγκους και τους κατέβαζαν στον πυθμένα του λατομείου, όπου αναλάμβαναν δουλειά οι γερανοί. «Εφαγαν» ολόκληρη τη μαρμαρινή ακτή με αυτό τον τρόπο οι αρχαίοι λατόμοι και σήμερα είναι εμφανή τα σημάδια της δραστηριότητας χιλιετιών στο μισοβυθισμένο μαρμάρινο απομεινάρι της, το οποίο οι κάτοικοι φιλοδοξούν να αποτελέσει πόλο έλξης επιπλέον επισκεπτών με αφορμή τη σύνδεσή του με τον τύμβο της Αμφίπολης. «Θέλουμε να πιστεύουμε ότι θα προβληθεί σωστά η πολιτιστική του πλευρά και θα αξιοποιηθεί προς όφελος του τόπου», μας είπε ο κ. Νίκος Νικολούδης, γνωστός ενεργός πολίτης στη Θάσο. Η φύση προσέφερε ένα επιπλέον δώρο στο καταπράσινο νησί του Βορείου Αιγαίου: το μάρμαρο. Από την αρχαιότητα η εξόρυξή του ήταν πηγή εσόδων για τους ντόπιους. Σήμερα λειτουργούν γύρω στα δέκα λατομεία που εξάγουν μάρμαρο μέχρι και στη Σαουδική Αραβία. «Δυστυχώς, σε πολλές περιπτώσεις ενεργών αλλά και μη ενεργών λατομείων, δεν τηρούνται οι προδιαγραφές και καταντούν πληγές για το περιβάλλον», μας λέει ο δημοτικός σύμβουλος Βασίλης Παπαφιλίππου.

Το άγνωστο λατομείο της Αλυκής Θάσου που έδωσε τα μάρμαρα στην Αμφίπολη

ΣΤΑΥΡΟΣ ΤΖΙΜΑΣ

Τα πλοία πλεύριζαν την άκρη του λατομείου και έδεναν στις δέστρες, μεγάλες τρύπες που είχαν ανοίξει για τον σκοπό αυτό. Με ειδικές τροχαλίες, οι τεχνίτες ρυμουλκούσαν από τις πλαγιές το μάρμαρο και το κατέβαζαν στον πυθμένα του λατομείου, όπου το αναλάμβαναν οι γερανοί.

ΕΤΙΚΕΤΕΣ:

Τούτη την εποχή η Αλυκή, μια από τις ομορφότερες παραλίες στα νοτιοανατολικά της Θάσου, βιώνει ημέρες δόξας.

Βουλιάζει από τουρίστες, Ρουμάνους και Βούλγαρους κυρίως, αλλά και Σκανδιναβούς και Γερμανούς.

Στη βραχώδη μύτη της μικροσκοπικής χερσονήσου, γυναικεία κορμιά απολαμβάνουν τον καλοκαιρινό ήλιο σε φυσικές μαρμάρινες «ξαπλώστρες» που μοιάζουν με μικρά παγόβουνα τεμαχισμένα αρμονικά, λες και έγιναν από ανθρώπινο χέρι. Ή μήπως έγιναν στ’ αλήθεια;

Στα καταγάλανα νερά του ορμίσκου, υπερσύγχρονα ιστιοφόρα και πολυτελείς θαλαμηγοί αγκυροβολούν καταμεσής του μικρού κόλπου, καθώς δεν υπάρχει μουράγιο για να πιάσουν ή μαρίνα για να δέσουν.

Χαρά Θεού για τους λιγοστούς ντόπιους, που τα καλοκαίρια ανοίγουν τα αραδιασμένα στην παραλία σπιτάκια τους, δουλεύουν κάποια γραφικά ταβερνάκια και εξασφαλίζουν ένα καλό εισόδημα.

Και όμως, στην αρχαιότητα η Αλυκή γνώρισε (και) καλύτερες μέρες, οι οποίες αποτυπώνονται όχι μόνο στα λείψανα του αρχαίου οικισμού που βρίσκεται πίσω από τα σπίτια της παραλίας ανάμεσα σε πεύκα ή στην παρουσία ιερού και δύο βασιλικών και των μισοβυθισμένων στη θάλασσα λατομείων μαρμάρου, αλλά και στην εν εξελίξει ανασκαφή στην Αμφίπολη.

Με μάρμαρο από την Αλυκή Θάσου είναι χτισμένος ο ταφικός περίβολος που ήρθε στο φως στον τύμβο του Καστά από την Κατερίνα Περιστέρη και τους συνεργάτες της και προκάλεσε παγκόσμιο θαυμασμό.
Οχι μόνο για την αρμονία και την αρχιτεκτονική της κατασκευής, αλλά ίσως -ακόμα περισσότερο- για το πώς έφτασαν από τη Θάσο στην Αμφίπολη, την εποχή εκείνη και με τα τότε μέσα, δυόμισι χιλιάδες κυβικά μέτρα μαρμάρινων όγκων, που χρειάστηκαν για να περιφραχθεί ο μακεδονικός τύμβος!

«Δεν είναι 100% σίγουρο, πρέπει να γίνει και μια ανάλυση, αλλά το πιο πιθανό είναι ότι ο περίβολος έχει χτιστεί με λευκό μάρμαρο Αλυκής Θάσου», λέει στην «Κ» η προϊσταμένη της ΙΗ΄ Εφορείας Κλασικών και Προϊστορικών Αρχαιοτήτων Καβάλας, Μαρία Νικολαΐδου.

Μια απλή περιήγηση στη μαρμάρινη χερσόνησο, με οδηγό τις ανακαλύψεις των αρχαιολόγων, μεταφέρει τον επισκέπτη σε περιόδους της αρχαιότητας κατά τις οποίες η Αλυκή ήταν ο βασικός τροφοδότης, με υπέροχο λευκό μάρμαρο, βασιλείων, αυτοκρατόρων, πλουσίων, από την αρχαϊκή έως τη ρωμαϊκή και πρωτοβυζαντινή περίοδο.

Εκεί ήταν το λατομείο, το μεγαλύτερο και σπουδαιότερο στη Θάσο, απ’ όπου απέκοπταν μαρμάρινους όγκους και τους τοποθετούσαν σε πλοιάρια με τη βοήθεια της μπίγας, ενός γερανού που είχαν επινοήσει για να σηκώνουν το βαρύτατο φορτίο.

Τα πλοία πλεύριζαν την άκρη του λατομείου και έδεναν τους κάβους στις δέστρες, μεγάλες τρύπες που είχαν ανοίξει για τον σκοπό αυτό, αλλά και για να συγκρατούν τις ανυψωτικές μηχανές σε μη αποκολλημένα μάρμαρα.

Από εκεί έφευγαν για προορισμούς της Μακεδονίας, της υπόλοιπης Ελλάδας, της Ρώμης μέχρι και την Αίγυπτο και την Περσία, κοσμώντας παλάτια, τάφους επιφανών και σπουδαία κτίρια.

Με ειδικά «τύμπανα» (τροχαλίες), ρυμουλκούσαν από τις πλαγιές τους τεράστιες όγκους και τους κατέβαζαν στον πυθμένα του λατομείου, όπου αναλάμβαναν δουλειά οι γερανοί.

«Εφαγαν» ολόκληρη τη μαρμαρινή ακτή με αυτό τον τρόπο οι αρχαίοι λατόμοι και σήμερα είναι εμφανή τα σημάδια της δραστηριότητας χιλιετιών στο μισοβυθισμένο μαρμάρινο απομεινάρι της, το οποίο οι κάτοικοι φιλοδοξούν να αποτελέσει πόλο έλξης επιπλέον επισκεπτών με αφορμή τη σύνδεσή του με τον τύμβο της Αμφίπολης.

«Θέλουμε να πιστεύουμε ότι θα προβληθεί σωστά η πολιτιστική του πλευρά και θα αξιοποιηθεί προς όφελος του τόπου», μας είπε ο κ. Νίκος Νικολούδης, γνωστός ενεργός πολίτης στη Θάσο.

Η φύση προσέφερε ένα επιπλέον δώρο στο καταπράσινο νησί του Βορείου Αιγαίου: το μάρμαρο. Από την αρχαιότητα η εξόρυξή του ήταν πηγή εσόδων για τους ντόπιους.

Σήμερα λειτουργούν γύρω στα δέκα λατομεία που εξάγουν μάρμαρο μέχρι και στη Σαουδική Αραβία. «Δυστυχώς, σε πολλές περιπτώσεις ενεργών αλλά και μη ενεργών λατομείων, δεν τηρούνται οι προδιαγραφές και καταντούν πληγές για το περιβάλλον», μας λέει ο δημοτικός σύμβουλος Βασίλης Παπαφιλίππου.

Thessaloniki, the geographical and historical capital city of Macedonia during the centuries, GREECE.

Thessaloniki, the geographical and historical capital city of Macedonia during the centuries, GREECE.

Ancient Macedonian City of Dion, Greece

THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS. Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906)

https://archive.org/details/picturesfrombalk00frasuoft

Quote: The town of Monastir, capital of the vilayet of Monsastir, lies just about half way between Bulgarian and Greek territory. North, the majority of Macedonians are Bulgar, south the majority are Hellenes. The villages meet, cross, and mix in the Monastir vilayet. The reason, therefore, we hear so much about disturbances at Monastir is not because the Turks there are more wicked than Turks elsewhere, but because there is a persistent feud between Greek and Bulgarian political religionists.
…..
Monastir is an undistinguished, motley sort of town of some 60,000 nhabitants, 14,000 of them Greek, 10,000 of them Bulgarian, four or five thousand Albanian, two or three thousand Jew, and the rest Turk.

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), chapter 20.

Quote:

But who are the Macedonians? You will find Bulgarians and Turks who call themselves Macedonians, you find Greek Macedonians, there are Servian Macedonians, and it is possible to find Roumanian Macedonians. You will NOT, however, find a single Christian Macedonian who is not a Servian, a Bulgarian, a Greek, or a Roumanian. They all curse the Turk, and they love Macedonia. But it is Greek Macedonia, or Bulgarian Macedonia, and their eyes flame with passion, whilst their fingers seek the triggers of their guns

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 5

Quote:

They visited the Bulgarian villages, levied contributions, and stored arms, so that on an appointed day there might be a rising against the Turk, and Bulgarian Macedonians be liberated from their oppressors for ever. Naturally they were greeted as heroes;

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 8

Quote:

i have some hope that in years to come the inhabitants will think less of their Turkish, Bulgarian or Greek Origin and a great deal more with the fact that they are all Macedonians.

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 17

Quote:

There was petty persecution; Bulgarian Christians crossed from Macedonia into Bulgaria proper and told their tales of woe. Then followed raids by armed bands of Bulgarians into Turkey. In time associations were formed in Bulgaria and secret committees in Macedonia to aid the Bulgarian cause. In time came a congress and the formation of the ” High Committee,” having for its object the securing of political autonomy for Macedonia, and pledged, in order to secure it, to take any action ” which may be dictated by circumstances.” The consequence was that peaceful Bulgarians in Macedonia were forced into the revolutionary movement, compelled to secrete arms, made to contribute to the maintenance of the “bands,” and were put to death if they reported to the Turks, or were massacred by the Turks because they were revolutionaries. However oppressive the Turks had been, however zealous were good Bulgarians to save their fellow – countrymen and co- religionists in Macedonia from oppression, the revolutionary movement, as it is in Macedonia to-day, is the outcome of terror and murder.

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 179

https://archive.org/details/picturesfrombalk00frasuoft

THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

Today’s members of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, or narod, speak a Slavic language codified only after 1944 with fewer than 2 million native-speakers and a slender body of literature. Macedonians are, for the most part, members of an Orthodox Church whose authority was established by a socialist political regime in 1968. Their kin-terms, household structures, marriage practices, and vernacular culture all closely resemble those of neighbouring groups. They are descended from people who were called, and at times called themselves, Serbs or Bulgarians”
[Keith Brown, “The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of a Nation”, 2003, Princeton University Press, p.2]
THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

Today’s members of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, or narod, speak a Slavic language codified only after 1944 with fewer than 2 million native-speakers and a slender body of literature. Macedonians are, for the most part, members of an Orthodox Church whose authority was established by a socialist political regime in 1968. Their kin-terms, household structures, marriage practices, and vernacular culture all closely resemble those of neighbouring groups. They are descended from people who were called, and at times called themselves, Serbs or Bulgarians”

[Keith Brown, “The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of a Nation”, 2003, Princeton University Press, p.2]


THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

We would like to inform you that this tag is not intended for prostitutes from Fyrom/Skopje.

Tags: Macedonia

Modern Writers about the Bulgarian Origin of Fyrom’s (Skopje) Slavs

Quote:

The town of Monastir, capital of the vilayet of Monsastir, lies just about half way between Bulgarian and Greek territory. North, the majority of Macedonians are Bulgar, south the majority are Hellenes. The villages meet, cross, and mix in the Monastir vilayet. The reason, therefore, we hear so much about disturbances at Monastir is not because the Turks there are more wicked than Turks elsewhere, but because there is a persistent feud between Greek and Bulgarian political religionists.
…..
Monastir is an undistinguished, motley sort of town of some 60,000 nhabitants, 14,000 of them Greek, 10,000 of them Bulgarian, four or five thousand Albanian, two or three thousand Jew, and the rest Turk.

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), chapter 20.

Quote:

But who are the Macedonians? You will find Bulgarians and Turks who call themselves Macedonians, you find Greek Macedonians, there are Servian Macedonians, and it is possible to find Roumanian Macedonians. You will NOT, however, find a single Christian Macedonian who is not a Servian, a Bulgarian, a Greek, or a Roumanian. They all curse the Turk, and they love Macedonia. But it is Greek Macedonia, or Bulgarian Macedonia, and their eyes flame with passion, whilst their fingers seek the triggers of their guns

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 5

Quote:

They visited the Bulgarian villages, levied contributions, and stored arms, so that on an appointed day there might be a rising against the Turk, and Bulgarian Macedonians be liberated from their oppressors for ever. Naturally they were greeted as heroes;

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 8

Quote:

i have some hope that in years to come the inhabitants will think less of their Turkish, Bulgarian or Greek Origin and a great deal more with the fact that they are all Macedonians.

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 17

Quote:

There was petty persecution; Bulgarian Christians crossed from Macedonia into Bulgaria proper and told their tales of woe. Then followed raids by armed bands of Bulgarians into Turkey. In time associations were formed in Bulgaria and secret committees in Macedonia to aid the Bulgarian cause. In time came a congress and the formation of the ” High Committee,” having for its object the securing of political autonomy for Macedonia, and pledged, in order to secure it, to take any action ” which may be dictated by circumstances.” The consequence was that peaceful Bulgarians in Macedonia were forced into the revolutionary movement, compelled to secrete arms, made to contribute to the maintenance of the “bands,” and were put to death if they reported to the Turks, or were massacred by the Turks because they were revolutionaries. However oppressive the Turks had been, however zealous were good Bulgarians to save their fellow – countrymen and co- religionists in Macedonia from oppression, the revolutionary movement, as it is in Macedonia to-day, is the outcome of terror and murder.

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), PAGE 179

Quote:

Basil II of Constantinople in 1014 decided to end once and for all a war that had already lasted forty years. To break the spirit of the hated Bulgarians, he blinded all but 150 of 15,000 prisoners. The “lucky” 150 were blinded in one eye only. Every 100 blind men were guided by a one-eyed leader back to the Bulgarian capital of Ohdrid, whose ruler, Samuel , had received word that his army was returning to him. Samuel hastened to meet his men and found himself staring at thousand of helpless blind men. The sight was fatal. Samuel suffered a stroke on the spot and died two days later. (Basil II received the surname Bulgaroktonos, meaning “slayer of Bulgarians”, )

Isaac Asimov’s Book of Facts By Isaac Asimov, page 225

Quote:

They population of Uskioub, consisting of Arnouts, Jews, Armenians, Zinzars, Greeks, Bulgarians and Servians, amounts to upwards of twelve thousand

“Travels in European Turkey, in 1850: Through Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thrace,…” By Edmund Spencer, page 28, Published 1851

Quote:

As the day was drawing to a close, we descended into the vast plain of Bittoglia, where we had to ford several unimportant streams rushing onward to the sluggish waters of the karasu,..With the exception of a few Greeks and Zinzars, the congregation consisted of Bulgarians, EASILY DISTINGUISHED by their short, thick-set figures, honest open countenances, and the unvarying costume, we before described

“Travels in European Turkey, in 1850: Through Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thrace,…” By Edmund Spencer, page 46, Published 1851

Quote:

Those of the vilayets of Adrianople and Macedonia , where, at the recent census, two-thirds of the inhabitants were found to be Bulgarians

“The Balkan Peninsula” by E. Laveleye, 1887, Page 251

Quote:

The unfortunate Armenians are at the present time most piteously oppressed and pillaged by the Kurds, the Circassians, and more especially by Turkish functionaries. ‘Their condition is very similar to that of the Bulgarians in Macedonia

“The Balkan Peninsula” by E. Laveleye, 1887, Page 305

Quote:

But having lived now with the Montenegrins, the Serbs, and the Bulgarian ‘Macedonians,’ I clung to the idea that somehow or other I must get right into Albanian territories

“The Burden of the Balkans” By M. Edith Durham 1863-1944, page 207

Quote:

Vatatzes was now quick to perceive the high tide in his efforts and decided to sail with the current. He ventured north to take Melnik, and continued northeastward to capture Stenimachus, Tzapaena and other places in the upper valley of the Maritsa, which became the boundary between Bulgaria and the Nicene empire, all without a struggle, “as though he was taking over an inheritance from his father”. He pushed on into the far northwest, taking Velbuzd (Kustendil) on the upper strymon; moved south taking skopje and trip in teh vardar region; then through Veles, Prilep and Pelagonia in the plains of Monastir; and eastward again to the Vardar where he took Prosek. It was a triumphant progress from beginning to end, but the end was not yet. In less than three months Vatatzes had overrun all Sourthwestern Bulgaria.

The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571 By Kenneth Meyer Setton, page 62

Quote:

Theodore Ducas began his spectacular reign over Epirus by an attack upon the Bulgarians (1216) from whom he seized the important towns of Ochrida and Prilep, extending his northeastern border to the plains of Monastir

The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571 By Kenneth Meyer Setton, page 43

Quote:

In Monastir also, the majority of the inhabitants is Bulgarian, and Bulgarian is the language in the market

“We, the Macedonians”, by Constantine Stephanove

Quote:

and Uskub, the great majority of the population is Slavic, … the middle ages until 1913 called themselves and were called by their neighbors Bulgarians


The Journal of International Relations By george h. blakeslee

Quote:

Si la Bulgarie, après beaucoup d’hésitations et non sans regret, a fait le grand sacrifice d’abandonner Uskub, dont la population est bulgare

Documents diplomatiques français (1871-1914). By France. Commission de publication des documents relatifs aux origines de la guerre de 1914

Translation: If Bulgaria, after many hesitations and not without regret, did the great sacrifice and give up Uskub, whose population is Bulgarian

Quote:

The writer who has frequently visited Monastir, can add his to mony to these pronouncements. The population of Monastir is Turkish, Bulgarian and Vlach

“The Quarterly Review” Published 1872, J. Murray

Quote:

Krushevo:
“In the house where the power resided, a BULGARIAN flag was put“: A wire of the Serbian cunsul in Bitola to the Moinister of the Foreign
Affairs of Serbia, 13 August 1903.

(Quote after Ilindenski Sbornik, 1903 – 1953, Skopje 1953, p. 40.)

Quote:

Tagepost 15 August 1903:
“The Bitola pashalik has been took over by general common
movement. Krushevo has saluted the BULGARIAN banner and
wants temporary to proclaim a republic”.

Quote:

Istambul, August 15, 1903:
SIR,
The political situation in Macedonia continues to grow worse each week.[…]
The real foundation for all the trouble is the desire of the BULGARIAN
population for freedom from Turkish rule
, and were the powers to say to Bulgaria what they have already said to Turkey, “that under no conditions
would she be permitted to take one foot on additional soil”, the trouble
would be speedily ended , but this they will not do, and consequently the
twentieth century crusade against the Turks is likely to go on, as no power,
not excepting Germany, is to brave public opinion openly taking sides with
the Turks against the Christians”.

Quote:

September 19, 1903:
“The Bulgarian government is in most delicate position…. and unless the
powers should intervene Bulgaria will be forced openly to embrace the
Macedonian cause. … I am quite of the opinion that the people in Bulgaria
will revolt against the government unless something be done…” writes the
American ambassador at the Porte, Leishman

John G. Leishman, US Ambassador to the Sublime Porte (serving 1900 – 1908)
to John Hay, American Secretary of State.Source: U.S. Deaprtment of State.
Diplomatic Despatches. Despatches from U.S. Ministers to Turkey, 1818 -
1906. National Archives Publications, M46, Roll 72, July 5 – October 29,
1903.

Quote:

The name ANTES suggest this people was intermixed with Iranians, and linguists point to a large number of Iranian loanwords in Slavic that were acquired very early. This would not be surpsising if the Slavs came from Ukraine because they would have had contact with both Iranian Scythians and Sarmatians. Indeed the Sarmatians were still to be found in Backa and the Banat near the Danybe at the time Slavs arrived there.

The Early Medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century By John Van Antwerp Fine, page 26

Quote:

Most of the Balkans were settled by Slavs of one of the two types. (excluding the smaller groups of Slavic Slovenes and Turkic Avars in the western Balkans). Each one of these two main Slavic groups was to be named for a second conquering group who appeared later in te Seventh century.The first of these two groups was the Bulgaro-Macedonians, whose Slavic component the Bulgarian historian Zlatarski derives from the Antes. They were conquered in the late seventh century by the Turkic Bulgars. The slavs eventually assimilated them, but the Bulgars’ name survived.

The Early Medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century By John Van Antwerp Fine, page 36

Quote:

Until the late nineteenth century both outside observers and those Bulgaro-Macedonians who had an ethnic consiousness believed that their group, which is NOW two seperate nationalities, comprised a SINGLE people, THE BULGARIANS. Thus the reader should IGNORE references to ethnic Macedonians in the Middle Ages which appear in some modern works. In the Middle Ages and into the nineteenth century, the term ‘Macedonian’ was used ENTIRELY in reference to a geographical region. Anyone who lived within its confines, regardless of nationality could be called a Macedonian.

The Early Medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century By John Van Antwerp Fine, Page 37

Quote:

It is the national identity of these Slav Macedonians that has been the most violently contested aspect of the whole Macedonian dispute, and is still being contested today. There is NO DOUBT that they are southern Slavs; they have a language, or a group of varying dialects, that is grammatically akin to Bulgarian but phonetically in some respects akin to Serbian, and which has certain quite distinctive features of its own.

[Elisabeth Barker, “Macedonia, its place in Balkan power politics”,
(originally published in 1950 by the Royal Institute of International Affairs), p.10]

Quote:

In regard to their own national feelings, all that can SAFELY be said is that during the last eighty years many MORE Slav Macedonians seem to have considered themselves Bulgarian, or closely linked to Bulgaria, than have considered themselves Serbian, or closely linked to Serbia (or Yugoslavia). Only the people of the Skoplje region, in the north west, have ever shown much tendency to regard themselves as Serbs. The feeling of being Macedonians, and nothiNg but Macedonians, seems to be a sentiment of fairly recent growth, and even today is not very deep-rooted.

[Elisabeth Barker, “Macedonia, its place in Balkan power politics”,
(originally published in 1950 by the Royal Institute of International Affairs), p.10]

Quote:

May the heroic Serb people at last find the necessary moral force–and they have it, it dwells within them–to recognize spontaneously what has long and unanimously been recognized by history, science, and the national sentiment of the Macedonian population itself, which sees in the Bulgarians ITS BROTHERS in language and blood, and which has fought hand in hand with them for religion, life, and liberty.

[N.S. Derzhavin, “Bulgaro-Serb Relations and the Macedonian Question”, (1918)]

Quote:

You seem to be afraid of Kimon Georgiev, you have involved yourselves too much with him and do not want to give autonomy to Pirin Macedonia. That a Macedonian consciousness HAS NOT YET DEVELOPED AMONG THE POPULATION IS OF NO ACCOUNT. No such consciousness existed in Byelorussia either when we proclaimed it a Soviet Republic. However, later it was shown that a Byelorussian people did in fact exist.

[Stalin to Bulgarian Delegation (G. Dimitrov, V. Korarov, T. Kostov) on 7 June 1946]

Quote:

It should be remembered, to begin with, that there is NO Macedonian race, as a distinct type. Macedonians may belong to any of the races of Eastern Europe or Western Asia, as, indeed, they do. A Macedonian Bulgar is just the same as a Bulgar of Bulgaria proper, the old principality, that in October, 1908, at Tirnova, was proclaimed independent of Turkey. He looks the same, talks the same, and very largely, thinks the same way. IN SHORT HE IS OF THE SAME STOCK. There is no difference, whatsoever, between the two branches of the race, except that the Macedonian Bulgars, as a result of their position under the Turkish government, have less culture and education than their northern brethren.


[Arthur Douglas Howden Smith, “Fighting the Turk in the Balkans: An American’s Adventures with the Macedonian Revolutionists”, 1908, p. 4-5]

Quote:

In general, however, the Macedonian Slavs differ somewhat both in appearance and character from their neighbours beyond the Bulgarian and Servian frontiers: the peculiar type which they present is probably due to a considerable admixture of Vlach, Hellenic, Albanian and Turkish blood, and to the influence of the surrounding races. Almost all independent authorities,however, agree that the bulk of the Slavonic population of Macedonia IS BULGARIAN. The principal indication is furnished by the language, which, though resembling Servian in some respects (e.g. the case-endings, which are occasionally retained), presents most of the characteristic features of Bulgarian.

[The 1911 Edition Encyclopedia, found online at: ]Bad title – LoveToKnow 1911

Quote:

Modern turkish histories present the idea that the macedonian question was the essential ingredient in understanding the volatile mix of problems that ultimately led to Balkan wars. Because the population of Macedonia was primarily Bulgarian, it was influenced heavily by the events of 1878. It is very likely that the establishment of the greater Bulgaria envisioned by the treaty of San Stefano, and which included much of Macedonia whetted the nationalistic appetites of a substantial portion of the Bulgarian population of Macedonia.

“Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913″ By Edward J. Erickson, page 39

Quote:

In Sofia, Bulgarians organized the Adrianople Region- MAcedonia Committee in 1890, and in Salonika, the internal Macedonian Revolutionary committee and Organization was formed in 1893.

“Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913″ By Edward J. Erickson, page 42

Quote:

In order to pave the way to the annexation of Rumelia, the task before the Bulgarian imperialists was twofold. In the first place they had to detach the Slav-speaking inhabitants from the Patriarcate, and attach them to the Exarchate. But that in itself would not have been enough, because of the local distribution of the different races. The Hellenes, as we should expect, occupy the whole of the sea coast in a nearly solid mass, which shades off in approaching the centre and north. The Slav element is equally solid in the north, and fades away to almost nothing on approaching the sea. The danger which the statesmen of Sofia had to fear was an equitable partition of the country on these lines between the two natioanalities, which would leave Bulgaria bigger indeed, but without the coveted coastline of the Aegean, and without that reversion to Contantinople which is the prime goal of Balkan ambitions. […]In order to justify the annexation of the entire territory between Bulgaria and the sea, therefore, it became necessary to create a FICTITIOUS country with a FICTITIOUS nationality. To return to the former illustration, we must imagine an independant Irish Republic desirous of adding the whole of Scottland to its dominion. It would be obliged, in the first place, to teach the Gaelic population that they were Irishmen, in order to enlist their support, and then to preach that Scotland was an invisible whole in order to establish a claim over the low lands.[b]The Bulgarian propagandists found what they required in the word “Macedonia” a name with no more definite significance than Wessex or Languedoc.[/B] Unfortunately for themselves, the Greeks had been the first to make use of this name, with its classical associations, and to give it a wide extension to the north in interests of Hellenic expansion. As usual their exaggerated pretensions defeated themselves, and the Bulgars now hoist them with their own petard, by persuading Europe that Macedonia was a definite political entity, like Wales or Switzerland. [..]The Macedonia thus constituted has no more national identity or cohesion than India. But the Christians on the whole outnumber the Moslems by probably four to three, and if the European Powers could be wrought upon to ignore the Moslem element in the population, as is so constantly done by European writers, and erect “Macedonia” into an autonomous state like Eastern Rumelia, Bulgaria would have the fairest prospect of repeating her former coup. It was possibly with a view to some such result that Gladstone threw out the phrase “Macedonia for the Macedonians”, a phrase which, be it said with all respect, could *not* have been used by any man of impartiality and intelligence who possesed a first hand knowledge of the country. The Bulgarians were prompt to adopt it, for the use against the Turks, while keeping that of Macedonia for the bulgars for use against the Greeks. Within the last few years, however, they have felt encouraged to lay claim openly to the remaining vilayet of Rumelia; the committee which directs the Folk War from Sofia has taken the name of “Macedonia-Adrianople” and bands of Comitadjis have been actively at work in the valley of the Martiza. IT IS THEREFORE NO LONGER NECESSARY TO DEMONSTRATE THE MYTHICAL CHARACTER OF THE “MACEDONIAN” nationality in the eyes of every element in the Macedonian population.

Allen Upward, The East End of Europe, London 1908, pp 25-27 

Quote:

And so the “Bulgarophone” villagers are no longer willing to admit they speak Bulgarian. They have coined a NEW term of their own accord, and henceforth, until they have got rid of it, is to be known as “Macedonian“. My Athenian friends were delighted when I told them of this on my return. It should give even greater pleasure to those Bulgarian agents who are SO ANXIOUS TO SEE THE MACEDONIANS TAUGHT THEY ARE MACEDONIANS

Allen Upward, The East End of Europe, London 1908, pp 205 

Quote:

A letter from Dimiter Miladinov1 (in Ohrid) to Victor Grigorovich2 (in Vienna) about the search for Bulgarian folk songs and relics in MacedoniaFebruary 25th, 1846I have not received a single line since your departure. In the meantime my efforts concerning OUR Bulgarian language and the Bulgarian (folk) songs, in compliance with your recommendations are unsurpassed. I have not for one moment ceased to fulfill the pledge which I made to you, Sir, because the Bulgarians are spontaneously striving for the truth. But I hope you will excuse my delay up till now, which is due to the difficulty I had in selecting the best songs and also in my work on the grammar. I hope that, on another convenient occasion, after I have collected more songs and finished the grammar, I will be able to send them to you. Please write where and through whom it would be safe to send them to you (as you so ardently wish).We are completely convinced, by assurances of the villagers of Glavinitsa, that the stone inscriptions for which we have been looking will also be found. I will study them next spring. It would be wonderful and desirable if, with your assistance, we could ask the Government for the holy relics of Saint Clement of Ohrid, verified by the Great Church of Christ, as you yourself witnessed with your own eye, and requested on your own initiative. And the steps taken before the authorities here concerning the holy relics in question will do much to bring you praise and to confer benefit upon our newly-opened school.

I am writing you this letter on the instructions of the notables in Ohrid. Looking forward to an immediate reply in Greek through the same bearer, I greet you with the deepest esteem and respect.

Братя Миладинови, Преписка, София (The Miladinov Brothers, Correspondence), Sofia, 1964, p. 15; the original is in Greek.

1 Dimiter Miladinov (1810-1862), born in Strouga, an eminent figure of the Bulgarian Revival and an active fighter for public education of the Bulgarians and for their spiritual and political awakening; he taught in Strouga, Ohrid, Koukoush and Prilep, where he introduced the Bulgarian language into the schools, where Greek had previously been the medium of instruction. Falsely accused by the Greek bishop of Ohrid, he was sent to prison in Constantinople where he died
2 Victor Ivanovich Grigorovich (1815-1876), Russian slavicist. In 1844-1847 traveled throughout the Bulgarian lands, including Macedonia and collected ethnographic and folklore material

II. The National Revival Period 1

Quote:

The origin of the Macedonian dispute the south-east half of Slav Macedonia where the population was most nearly Bulgarian

The New Macedonian Question (St. Antony’s) by James Pettifer, page 12

Quote:

Where an overaching identity existed among Slavs in Macedonia, it was a Bulgarian one UNTIL at least the 1860s. The cultural impetus for a seperated Macedonian identity would only emerge LATER

Outcast Europe BY Tom Gallagher, page 47

Quote:

..descendant of Samuil, collected an army and took the chief Bulgarian town, Skopje, and soon came to dominate Thrace, Epirus and Macedonia

A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories) by R. J. Crampton, page 23

Quote:

Among the Bulgarians of Prilep, after the ceremony in church is over, one of the brothers entertains his relatives..

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 4 by James Hastings, page 79

Quote:

The Bulgarians fall into two divisions, the Black Bulgarians and the Gaugauz.–The latter came from the Dobrudzha between 1804 and 1812, the former are subdivided in

  1. Black Bulgarians and Macedonians and
  2. Black Bulgarians of Rumanyo origin.The former came in 1830, the latter at the same time with the Gaugauz.

The Gaugauz speak Turkish and write in the Romanyo Alphabete
The Black Bulgarians speak –those of Macedonian origin writing in Greek , those of the Romanyo countries in Slavonic characters.

The Nationalities of Europe, Robert Gordon Latham ,1863, Colonists in Russia,page 360

Quote:

“The general estimate is that between forty and fifty United thousand Bulgars (from Bulgaria and Macedonia) have come to this country, including those in Canada. Their principal centre was here in Granite City, an outlying suburb of St. Louis, but during the last year the majority of the 10,000 who were here have migrated westward. At present there are less than a thousand here. About 10,000 are now working on the railroad lines in Montana, the two Dakotas, Iowa and Minnesota. The belief is they will return here in autumn, but my own impression is, there will never again be 10,000 of them in Granite City.
” Other important centres are Seattle, Butte, Montana, Chicago, Indianapolis and Steelton, Pennsylvania; but they are too shifting a people to make estimates of their numbers in those centres of any value.
“I hope you are not making any racial distinctions between Bulgars and Macedonians. I believe the Bulgars who have come from Macedonia are registered on Ellis Island as Macedonians, which is bound to be confusing and inaccurate, for Macedonians may include Greeks, Vlachs, and even Turks. The distinction between the Bulgars from Bulgaria and those from Macedonia is PURELY political. Many of those who are registered as Greeks are so in church affiliation only, being Slavic by race and tongue.
The majority (I should say about 80 per cent) of the Bulgars in this country are from Macedonia, and nearly all are from one small districtin Monastir vilayet; Kostur, or Castoria.Their reasons for coming are fundamentally economic, but the immediate causes are the revolution of 1904, when half the people in Monastir were rendered homeless by the burning of their villages, and the continued persecution of the Greek Church since then, which closed Greece to them as a market for their labor. Not five per cent of the Bulgars in this country came before four years ago.

“Our Slavic Fellow Citizens” By Emily Greene Balch pp 274-275

Quote:

It is very interesting to compare together the different inhabitants of European Turkey, such as the Servians, the Bulgarians, the Wallachians, the Greeks, and the Albanians. The Servians and Bulgarians may be said to be nearly the same people, and appear to be more numerous than the Greeks;

The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal: exhibiting a view of the Progressive discoveries..” Published 1838
by A. and C. Black – Original from the New York Public Library – p.240


Quote:

The language of these various populations divides itself into two principal idioms: each of these into three where the difference is less. Of the Southern dialect are the Slovaks, the Serbs and Bulgarians; of the Northern, the Bohemians, Poles, and Russians.

Vacation Tourists and Notes of Travel in 1860 By Francis Galton Published 1861 Macmillan and co. Original from the University of Michigan, page 108

Quote:

The Bulgarians in their turn wanted to exploit the dense presence of Slavonic-Speakers all over Macedonia to support their own irredentist aspirations in the region. A leading part in achieving their national goals was to be played by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) and the Bulgarian presence and influence throughout Macedonia, particularly in the controversial middle linguistic zone, was considerably strengthened by means of education and the Exarchal Church. This combination was regarded as the best counterweigtht to the Greek Patriarchal influence in the region, in an effort to offset the losses inflicted by the treaty of Berlin. The chief aim of the Bulgarian strategy was to awaken the notion of self-defence in the Bulgarian-speaking population of Macedonia and Thrace, which would urge them to demand and achieve a degree of political autonomy within the Ottoman empirel subsequently they could be annexed by Bulgaria.

Mediterranean Politics By Richard Gillespie, page 88

“In 1878 at the time of San Stefano, the population of Macedonia was about one million. Greeks inhabited most ot he coasal districts, and there were many settlement of Vlachs, Serbs and Turks: but many of the Macedonian peasants of the interior classed themselves as Bulgars.

Balkan Background By Newman, Bernard, page 53

Near the ruins of Stobi, on the banks of Erigonus there is a race of Mussulmans, who however speak Bulgarian and are evidently of Bulgarian descent.

Foreign Quarterly Review, 1834, page 447

THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

Modern writers about the Bulgarian origin of FYROMs Slavs – William Miller

Travels and politics in the Near East (1898) by William Miller 1864-1945

No mention about the so called “ethnic Macedonians” only about Bulgarians.

https://archive.org/details/travelspolitic00mill

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Miller_%28historian%29

And, finally, to the literary man, the Balkan Peninsula, with its extraordinary medley of races and languages, affords a field of observation which is all but virgin soil. Here the Bulgarian and the Greek, the Albanian and the Serb, the Osmanli, the Spanish Jew and the Roumanian, live side by side.

The Macedonian question is perhaps the most dangerous problem which the statesmen of Europe will have to face
in the near future. One of the ablest and most experienced of British diplomatists in the Balkan Peninsula said to me a year and a half ago, ” Old Servia, Macedonia, and Albania will before long become a regular cockpit between Bulgarians, Servians, Montenegrins, and Greeks.” That he was right, no one at all acquainted with the facts will for a moment doubt. 

But in Macedonia all these races are hopelesssly intermixed.

a little later the famous Bulgarian Tsar, Samuel, whose reign extended from 976 to 1014, made Macedonia the centre of his empire, and fixed his residence first on a rocky island in the upper lake of Prespa, and then at Ochrida. To this day the name of Grad, or ” the fort,” which the island still bears, testifies to his occupation of the spot. It was to Prespa, too, that Samuel, returning from the sack of Larissa, transferred the remains of the holy Achilles, and the remains of a monastery dedicated to this saint are still to be found on an island of the lower lake. Now, for the first time, we read of a Bulgarian Patriarch of Ochrida, a see which played a considerable part at one time or another in Macedonian history.
Even when the Byzantine Emperor Basil, ” the Bulgar- slayer,” conquered and overthrew the first Bulgarian Empire in 1018, he allowed this Bulgarian church at Ochrida to exist, though he substituted an archbishop for a Patriarch. And we learn from the golden bulls, in which this Emperor confirmed the privileges of the Bulgarian church, that under Samuel, that is to say, in the first two decades of the eleventh century, the Bulgarian realm had included practically all Macedonia. Pristina, Uskub, Veles, Prilep, Kastoria, and even Joannina, the capital of Albania, had all owned the sway of the mighty Bulgarian Tsar.

 With the formation of the second Bulgarian Empire in 1186, the rule of the Tsars once more made itself felt in Macedonia. As early as 1197 a Bulgarian noble declared himself independent in the passes of the Vardar, and governed Upper Macedonia in his own name. We find the Tsar Kalojan lord of Uskub in 1210.

Slaveikoff, by his journal, published at Constantinople in the sixties, had endeavoured to prepare the way for the national movement in Macedonia ; but so little was the Bulgarian alphabet then known, even among the Bulgarian Macedonians, that the editor was forced to print his patriotic articles in Greek characters.

Bcrats were granted in 1890 for two Bulgarian Bishops at Ochrida and Uskub respectively

 And he sums up their prospects by saying that ” in the end they will win nearly all the Bulgarian-speaking people of Macedonia;

 Accordingly, the Servian Government, which in former days favoured the Bulgarian movement in Macedonia, and actually allowed the first books of that propaganda to be printed at Belgrade, has now become its rival.

 American missionaries, working among the Bulgarians of Macedonia, have noticed with surprise that all of a sudden their familiar disciples have changed their nationality, and blossomed out into full-blown Serbs.

 In the district of Uskub, where there are some Servian-speaking refugees and people speaking a Bulgarian dialect containing many Servian words, this propaganda may make some conquests.

But elsewhere in Macedonia, where the language of the people is Bulgarian and not Servian, the difference of tongue, though not insurmountable, is sufficient to make the task difficult. In the vilayet of Monastir, more especially, the Serbs have little chance against their Bulgarian rivals.

Of course, now that Greece has been weakened, the Sultan, true to his traditional policy of playing one Christian race off against the other, has begun to favour the Greeks in Macedonia at the expense of the Bulgarians, just as in 1890 and 1894 he favoured the Bulgarians at the expense of the Greeks.

But the Armenians inspire in the Turks a hatred such as no other Christian race causes them, and the worst of it is that the Armenians have hot, like the Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, and Wallachs living in the Turkish dominions.

Travels and politics in the Near East (1898) by William Miller 1864-1945

https://archive.org/details/travelspolitic00mill


THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

ΤHE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

The Constraction of a New Slav-“macedonian” Alphabet was even a Yugoslavian Communist Affair

Picture A

These are the people from the first commission, who created the New-Slav- “Macedonian” alphabet in November 1944.
Left to right: Vasil Ilioski, Hristo Zografov, Krum Toshev, Dare Djambas, Venko Markovski, Mirko Pavlovski, Mihail Petrushevski, Hristo Prodanov, Georgi Kiselinov, Georgi Shoptraianov, Iovan Kostov (-ov and -ev means their Bulgarian descent)

Picture b

The name of Fyrom-Skopje was until 1944 Vardaska.

From 1913 until its collapse on account of the German invasion, the Yugoslav (monarchist) Government adopted a policy of Serbinzation and de-Bulgarianisation of the Slavic idiom spoken in Vardar (FYROM); an idiom which was generally considered by foreign sources and Slavologists to be a Bulgarian dialect.

From the end of WW2 with the Communists in control of Yugoslavia, a similar yet project, with many differences however was undertaken with the linguism of Vardar. While efforts de-bulgarianise the idiom and bring it closer to the Serbo-Croat dialect were again undertaken (Multiple peices of evidence confirm this), communist rule and the subsuming of  Pseudo Slavo “Macedonism” as an ideology meant that Belgrade made a concerted effort to develope unique aspects of the language. Surenames in some cases are even recorded as having been changed from the traditional Bulgarian possessive ending ‘ov’ to an ending to an ‘ovski’ surename ending. Commitees were set up by the Yugoslav Commitern to “resolve” matters of a “Slavo-Macedonian” language and alphabet.

Venko Markovski, was one of the creators of the Slavo ‘Macedonian’ alphabet in 1944, but lost favour with Tito and fled to Bulgaria later on.

THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S SLAVS (TO BE CONTINUED)

100 Most Famous Ancient Macedonian Names.

KINGS OF MACEDON AND DIADOCHI

1. ALEXANDROS m Ancient Greek (ALEXANDER Latinized)
Pronounced: al-eg-ZAN-dur
From the Greek name Alexandros, which meant ‘defending men’ from Greek alexein ‘to defend, protect, help’ and aner ‘man’ (genitive andros). Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, is the most famous bearer of this name. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. The name was borne by five kings of Macedon.

2. PHILIPPOS m Ancient Greek (PHILIP Latinized)
Pronounced: FIL-ip
From the Greek name Philippos which means ‘friend of horses’, composed of the elements philos ‘friend’ and hippos ‘horse’. The name was borne by five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great.

2. AEROPOS m Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Male form of Aerope who in Greek mythology was the wife of King Atreus of Mycenae. Aeropos was also the son of Aerope, daughter of Kepheus: ‘Ares, the Tegeans say, mated with Aerope, daughter of Kepheus (king of Tegea), the son of Aleos. She died in giving birth to a child, Aeropos, who clung to his mother even when she was dead, and sucked great abundance of milk from her breasts. Now this took place by the will of Ares.’ (Pausanias 8.44.) The name was borne by two kings of Macedon.

4. ALKETAS m Ancient Greek (ALCAEUS Latinized)
Pronounced: al-SEE-us
Derived from Greek alke meaning ‘strength’. This was the name of a 7th-century BC lyric poet from the island of Lesbos.

5. AMYNTAS m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek amyntor meaning ‘defender’. The name was borne by three kings of Macedon.

6. ANTIGONOS m Ancient Greek (ANTIGONUS Latinized)
Pronounced: an-TIG-o-nus
Means ‘like the ancestor’ from Greek anti ‘like’ and goneus ‘ancestor’. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander died, he took control of most of Asia Minor. He was known as Antigonus ‘Monophthalmos’ (‘the One-Eyed’). Antigonos II (ruled 277-239 BC) was known as ‘Gonatos’ (‘knee, kneel’).

7. ANTIPATROS m Ancient Greek (ANTIPATER Latinized)
Pronounced: an-TI-pa-tur
From the Greek name Antipatros, which meant ‘like the father’ from Greek anti ‘like’ and pater ‘father’. This was the name of an officer of Alexander the Great, who became the regent of Macedon during Alexander’s absence.

8. ARCHELAOS m Ancient Greek (ARCHELAUS Latinized)
Pronounced: ar-kee-LAY-us
Latinized form of the Greek name Archelaos, which meant ‘master of the people’ from arche ‘master’ and laos ‘people’. It was also the name of the 7th Spartan king who came in the throne of Sparti in 886 BC, long before the establishment of the Macedonian state.

9. ARGAIOS m Greek Mythology (ARGUS Latinized)
Derived from Greek argos meaning ‘glistening, shining’. In Greek myth this name belongs to both the man who built the Argo and a man with a hundred eyes. The name was borne by three kings of Macedon.

10. DEMETRIOS m Ancient Greek (DEMETRIUS Latinized)
Latin form of the Greek name Demetrios, which was derived from the name of the Greek goddess Demeter. Kings of Macedon and the Seleucid kingdom have had this name. Demetrios I (ruled 309-301 BC) was known as ‘Poliorketes’ (the ‘Beseiger’).

11. KARANOS m Ancient Greek (CARANUS Latinized)
Derived from the archaic Greek word ‘koiranos’ or ‘karanon”, meaning ‘ruler’, ‘leader’ or ‘king’. Both words stem from the same archaic Doric root ‘kara’ meaning head, hence leader, royal master. The word ‘koiranos’ already had the meaning of ruler or king in Homer. Karanos is the name of the founder of the Argead dynasty of the Kings of Macedon.

12. KASSANDROS m Greek Mythology (CASSANDER Latinized)
Pronounced: ka-SAN-dros
Possibly means ‘shining upon man’, derived from Greek kekasmai ‘to shine’ and aner ‘man’ (genitive andros). In Greek myth Cassandra was a Trojan princess, the daughter of Priam and Hecuba. She was given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, but when she spurned his advances he cursed her so nobody would believe her prophecies. The name of a king of Macedon.

13. KOINOS m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek koinos meaning ‘usual, common’. An Argead king of Macedon in the 8th century BC.

14. LYSIMACHOS m Ancient Greek (LYSIMACHUS Latinized)
Means ‘a loosening of battle’ from Greek lysis ‘a release, loosening’ and mache ‘battle’. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander’s death Lysimachus took control of Thrace.

15. SELEUKOS m Ancient Greek (SELEUCUS Latinized)
Means ‘to be light’, ‘to be white’, derived from the Greek word leukos meaning ‘white, bright’. This was the name of one of Alexander’s generals that claimed most of Asia and founded the Seleucid dynasty after the death of Alexander in Babylon.

16. ARRIDHAIOS m Ancient Greek
Son of Philip II and later king of Macedon. The greek etymology is Ari (= much) + adj Daios (= terrifying). Its full meaning is “too terrifying”. Its Aeolian type is Arribaeos.

17. ORESTES m Greek Mythology
Pronounced: o-RES-teez
Derived from Greek orestais meaning ‘of the mountains’. In Greek myth he was the son of Agamemnon. He killed his mother Clytemnestra after she killed his father. The name of a king of Macedon (ruled 399-396 BC).

18. PAUSANIAS m Ancient Greek
King of Macedon in 393 BC. Pausanias was also the name of the Spartan king at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC, and the name of the Greek traveller, geographer and writer whose most famous work is ‘Description of Greece’, and also the name of the man who assassinated Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC.

19. PERDIKKAS m Ancient Greek (PERDICCAS Latinized)
Derived from Greek perdika meaning ‘partridge’. Perdikkas I is presented as founder of the kingdom of Macedon in Herodotus 8.137. The name was borne by three kings of Macedon.

20. PERSEUS m Greek Mythology
Pronounced: PUR-see-us
It derives from Greek verb pertho meaning ‘to destroy, conquer’. Its full meaning is the “conqueror”. Perseus was a hero in Greek legend. He killed Medusa, who was so ugly that anyone who gazed upon her was turned to stone, by looking at her in the reflection of his shield and slaying her in her sleep. The name of a king of Macedon (ruled 179-168 BC).

21. PTOLEMEOS m Ancient Greek (PTOLEMY Latinized)
Pronounced: TAWL-e-mee
Derived from Greek polemeios meaning ‘aggressive’ or ‘warlike’. Ptolemy was the name of several Greco-Egyptian rulers of Egypt, all descendents of Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great’s generals. This was also the name of a Greek astronomer. Ptolemy ‘Keraunos’ (ruled 281-279 BC) is named after the lighting bolt thrown by Zeus.

22. TYRIMMAS m Greek Mythology
Tyrimmas, an Argead king of Macedon and son of Coenus. Also known as Temenus. In Greek mythology, Temenus was the son of Aristomaches and a great-great grandson of Herakles. He became king of Argos. Tyrimmas was also a man from Epirus and father of Evippe, who consorted with Odysseus (Parthenius of Nicaea, Love Romances, 3.1). Its full meaning is “the one who loves cheese”.

QUEENS AND ROYAL FAMILY

23. EURYDIKE f Greek Mythology (EURYDICE Latinized)
Means ‘wide justice’ from Greek eurys ‘wide’ and dike ‘justice’. In Greek myth she was the wife of Orpheus. Her husband tried to rescue her from Hades, but he failed when he disobeyed the condition that he not look back upon her on their way out. Name of the mother of Philip II of Macedon.

24. BERENIKE f Ancient Greek (BERENICE Latinized)
Pronounced: ber-e-NIE-see
Means ‘bringing victory’ from pherein ‘to bring’ and nike ‘victory’. This name was common among the Ptolemy ruling family of Egypt.

25. KLEOPATRA f Ancient Greek (CLEOPATRA Latinized), English
Pronounced: klee-o-PAT-ra
Means ‘glory of the father’ from Greek kleos ‘glory’ combined with patros ‘of the father’. In the Iliad, the name of the wife of Meleager of Aetolia. This was also the name of queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After being defeated by Augustus she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. Also the name of a bride of Philip II of Macedon.

26. CYNNA f Ancient Greek
Half-sister of Alexander the great. Her name derives from the adj. of doric dialect Cyna (= tough).

27. THESSALONIKI f Ancient Greek
Means ‘victory over the Thessalians’, from the name of the region of Thessaly and niki, meaning ‘victory’. Name of Alexander the Great’s step sister and of the city of Thessaloniki which was named after her in 315 BC.

GENERALS, SOLDIERS, PHILOSOPHERS AND OTHERS

28. PARMENION m ancient Greek
The most famous General of Philip and Alexander the great. Another famous bearer of this name was the olympic winner Parmenion of Mitiline. His name derives from the name Parmenon + the ending -ion used to note descendancy. It means the “descedant of Parmenon”.

29. PEUKESTAS m Ancient Greek
He saved Alexander the Great in India. One of the most known Macedonians. His name derives from Πευκής (= sharp) + the Doric ending -tas. Its full meaning is the “one who is sharp”.

30. ARISTOPHANES m Ancient Greek
Derived from the Greek elements aristos ‘best’ and phanes ‘appearing’. The name of one of Alexander the Great’s personal body guard who was present during the murder of Cleitus. (Plutarch, Alexander, ‘The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans’). This was also the name of a 5th-century BC Athenian playwright.

31. KORRAGOS m Ancient Greek
The Macedonian who challenged into a fight the Olympic winner Dioxippos and lost. His name derives from Koira (= army) + ago (= lead). Korragos has the meaning of “the leader of the army”.

32. ARISTON m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek aristos meaning ‘the best’. The name of a Macedonian officer on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book II, 9 and Book III, 11, 14).

33. KLEITUS m Ancient Greek (CLEITUS Latinized)
Means ‘calling forth’ or ‘summoned’ in Greek. A phalanx battalion commander in Alexander the Great’s army at the Battle of Hydaspes. Also the name of Alexander’s nurse’s brother, who severed the arm of the Persian Spithridates at the Battle of the Granicus.

34. HEPHAISTION m Greek Mythology
Derived from Hephaistos (‘Hephaestus’ Latinized) who in Greek mythology was the god of fire and forging and one of the twelve Olympian deities. Hephaistos in Greek denotes a ‘furnace’ or ‘volcano’. Hephaistion was the companion and closest friend of Alexander the Great. He was also known as ‘Philalexandros’ (‘friend of Alexander’).

35. HERAKLEIDES m Ancient Greek (HERACLEIDES Latinized)
Perhaps means ‘key of Hera’ from the name of the goddess Hera combined with Greek kleis ‘key’ or kleidon ‘little key’. The name of two Macedonian soldiers on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I, 2; Book III, 11 and Book VII, 16).

36. KRATEROS m Ancient Greek (CRATERUS Latinized)
Derived from Greek adj. Κρατερός (= Powerful). This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. A friend of Alexander the Great, he was also known as ‘Philobasileus’ (‘friend of the King’).

37. NEOPTOLEMOS m Greek Mythology (NEOPTOLEMUS Latinized)
Means ‘new war’, derived from Greek neos ‘new’ and polemos ‘war’. In Greek legend this was the name of the son of Achilles, brought into the Trojan War because it was prophesied the Greeks could not win it unless he was present. After the war he was slain by Orestes because of his marriage to Hermione. Neoptolemos was believed to be the ancestor of Alexander the Great on his mother’s (Olympias’) side (Plutarch). The name of two Macedonian soldiers during Alexander’s campaigns (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I, 6 and Book II, 27).

38. PHILOTAS m Ancient Greek
From Greek philotes meaning ‘friendship’. Son of Parmenion and a commander of Alexander the Great’s Companion cavalry.

39. PHILOXENOS m Ancient Greek
Meaning ‘friend of strangers’ derived from Greek philos meaning friend and xenos meaning ‘stranger, foreigner’. The name of a Macedonian soldier on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book III, 6).

40. MENELAOS m Greek Mythology (MENELAUS Latinized)
Means ‘withstanding the people’ from Greek meno ‘to last, to withstand’ and laos ‘the people’. In Greek legend he was a king of Sparta and the husband of Helen. When his wife was taken by Paris, the Greeks besieged the city of Troy in an effort to get her back. After the war Menelaus and Helen settled down to a happy life. Macedonian naval commander during the wars of the Diadochi and brother of Ptolemy Lagos.

41. LAOMEDON m ancient greek
Friend from boyhood of Alexander and later Satrap. His names derives from the greek noun laos (λαός = “people” + medon (μέδω = “the one who governs”)

42. POLYPERCHON Ancient Greek
Macedonian, Son of Simmias His name derives from the greek word ‘Πολύ’ (=much) + σπέρχω (= rush).

43. HEGELOCHOS m (HEGELOCHUS Latinized)
Known as the conspirator. His name derives from the greek verb (ηγέομαι = “walking ahead” + greek noun λόχος = “set up ambush”).

44. POLEMON m ancient Greek
From the house of Andromenes. Brother of Attalos. Means in greek “the one who is fighting in war”.

45. AUTODIKOS m ancient greek
Somatophylax of Philip III. His name in greek means “the one who takes the law into his (own) hands”

46. BALAKROS m ancient Greek
Son of Nicanor. We already know Macedonians usually used a “beta” instead of a “phi” which was used by Atheneans (eg. “belekys” instead of “pelekys”, “balakros” instead of “falakros”). “Falakros” has the meaning of “bald”.

47. NIKANOR (Nικάνωρ m ancient Greek; Latin: Nicanor) means “victor” – from Nike (Νικη) meaning “victory”.
Nicanor was the name of the father of Balakras. He was a distinguished Macedonian during the reign of Phillip II.
Another Nicanor was the son of Parmenion and brother of Philotas. He was a distinguished officer (commander of the Hypaspists) in the service of Alexander the Great. He died of disease in Bactria in 330 BC.

48. LEONNATOS m ancient Greek
One of the somatophylakes of Alexander. His name derives from Leon (= Lion) + the root Nat of noun Nator (= dashing). The full meaning is “Dashing like the lion”.

49. KRITOLAOS m ancient Hellinic
He was a potter from Pella. His name was discovered in amphoras in Pella during 1980-87. His name derives from Κρίτος (= the chosen) + Λαός (= the people). Its full meaning is “the chosen of the people”.

50. ZOILOS m ancient Hellinic
Father of Myleas from Beroia – From zo-e (ΖΩΗ) indicating ‘lively’, ‘vivacious’. Hence the Italian ‘Zoilo’

51. ZEUXIS m ancient Hellinic
Name of a Macedonian commander of Lydia in the time of Antigonos III and also the name of a Painter from Heraclea – from ‘zeugnumi’ = ‘to bind’, ‘join together’

52. LEOCHARIS m ancient Hellinic
Sculptor – Deriving from ‘Leon’ = ‘lion’ and ‘charis’ = ‘grace’. Literally meaning the ‘lion’s grace’.

53. DEINOKRATIS m ancient Hellinic
Helped Alexander to create Alexandria in Egypt.
From ‘deinow’ = ‘to make terrible’ and ‘kratein’ = “to rule”
Obviously indicating a ‘terrible ruler’

54. ADMETOS (Άδμητος) m Ancient Greek
derive from the word a+damaw(damazw) and mean tameless,obstreperous.Damazw mean chasten, prevail

55. ANDROTIMOS (Ανδρότιμος) m Ancient Greek
derive from the words andreios (brave, courageous) and timitis(honest, upright )

56. PEITHON m Ancient Greek
Means “the one who persuades”. It was a common name among Macedonians and the most famous holders of that names were Peithon, son of Sosicles, responsible for the royal pages and Peithon, son of Krateuas, a marshal of Alexander the Great.

57. SOSTRATOS m Ancient Greek
Derives from the Greek words “Σως (=safe) +Στρατος (=army)”. He was son of Amyntas and was executed as a conspirator.

58. DIMNOS m Ancient Greek
Derives from the greek verb “δειμαίνω (= i have fear). One of the conspirators.

59. TIMANDROS m Ancient Greek
Meaning “Man’s honour”. It derives from the greek words “Τιμή (=honour) + Άνδρας (=man). One of the commanders of regular Hypaspistes.

60. TLEPOLEMOS ,(τληπόλεμος) m Ancient Greek
Derives from greek words “τλήμων (=brave) + πόλεμος (=war)”. In greek mythology Tlepolemos was a son of Heracles. In alexanders era, Tlepolemos was appointed Satrap of Carmania from Alexander the Great.

61. AXIOS (Άξιος) m ancient Greek
Meaning “capable”. His name was found on one inscription along with his patronymic “Άξιος Αντιγόνου Μακεδών”.

62. THEOXENOS (Θεόξενος) ancient Greek
Derives from greek words “θεός (=god) + ξένος (=foreigner).His name appears as a donator of the Apollo temple along with his patronymic and city of origin(Θεόξενος Αισχρίωνος Κασσανδρεύς).

63. MITRON (Μήτρων) m ancient Greek
Derives from the greek word “Μήτηρ (=Mother)”. Mitron of Macedon appears in a inscription as a donator

64. KLEOCHARIS (Κλεοχάρης) M ancient greek
Derives from greek words “Κλέος (=fame) + “Χάρις (=Grace). Kleocharis, son of Pytheas from Amphipoli was a Macedonian honoured in the city of Eretria at the time of Demetrius son of Antigonus.

65. PREPELAOS (Πρεπέλαος) m, ancient Greek
Derives from greek words “πρέπω (=be distinguished) + λαος (=people). He was a general of Kassander.

66. HIPPOLOCHOS (Ιππόλοχος) m, ancient Greek
Derives from the greek words “Ίππος” (= horse) + “Λόχος”(=set up ambush). Hippolochos was a Macedonian historian (ca. 300 B.C.)

67. ALEXARCHOS (Αλέξαρχος) m, ancient Greek
Derives from Greek “Αλέξω” (=defend, protect, help) + “Αρχος ” (= master). Alexarchos was brother of Cassandros.

68. ASCLEPIODOROS (Ασκληπιοδορος) m Ancient Greek
Derives from the greek words Asclepios (= cut up) + Doro (=Gift). Asclepios was the name of the god of healing and medicine in Greek mythology. Asclepiodoros was a prominent Macedonian, son of Eunikos from Pella. Another Asclepiodoros in Alexander’s army was son of Timandros.

69. KALLINES (Καλλινης) m Ancient Greek
Derives from greek words kalli + nao (=stream beautifully). He was a Macedonian, officer of companions.

70. PLEISTARHOS (Πλείσταρχος) m ancient Greek
Derives from the greek words Pleistos (=too much) + Arhos ((= master). He was younger brother of Cassander.

71. POLYKLES (Πολυκλής) m ancient Greek
Derives from the words Poli (=city) + Kleos (glory). Macedonian who served as Strategos of Antipater.

72. POLYDAMAS (Πολυδάμας) m ancient Greek
The translation of his name means “the one who subordinates a city”. One Hetairos.

73. APOLLOPHANES (Απολλοφάνης) m ancient greek.
His name derives from the greek verb “απολλυμι” (=to destroy) and φαίνομαι (= appear to be). Apollophanes was a prominent Macedonian who was appointed Satrap of Oreitae.

74. ARCHIAS (Αρχίας) m ancient Greek
His name derive from greek verb Άρχω (=head or be in command). Archias was one of the Macedonian trierarchs in Hydaspes river.

75. ARCHESILAOS (Αρχεσίλαος) m ancient Greek
His name derive from greek verb Άρχω (=head or be in command) + Λαος (= people). Archesilaos was a Macedonian that received the satrapy of Mesopotamia in the settlement of 323.

76. ARETAS (Αρετας) m ancient Greek
Derives from the greek word Areti (=virtue). He was commander of Sarissoforoi at Gaugamela.

77. KLEANDROS (Κλέανδρος) m ancient Greek
Derives from greek verb Κλέος (=fame) + Ανδρος (=man). He was commander of Archers and was killed in Hallicarnasus in 334 BC.

78. AGESISTRATOS (Αγησίστρατος) m ancient greek
Father of Paramonos, a general of Antigonos Doson. His name derives from verb ηγήσομαι ( = lead in command) + στρατος (= army). “Hgisomai” in Doric dialect is “Agisomai”. Its full meaning is “the one who leads the army”

79. AGERROS (Αγερρος) M ancient Greek
He was father of Andronikos, general of Alexander. His name derives from the verb αγέρρω (= the one who makes gatherings)

80. AVREAS (Αβρέας) m ancient Greek
Officer of Alexander the great. His name derives from the adj. αβρός (=polite)

81. AGATHANOR (Αγαθάνωρ) m ancient Greek
Som of Thrasycles. He was priest of Asklepios for about 5 years. His origin was from Beroia as is attested from an inscription. His name derives from the adj. αγαθός (= virtuous) + ανήρ (= man). The full meaning of his name is “Virtuous man”

82. AGAKLES (Αγακλής) m ancient Greek
He was son of Simmihos and was from Pella. He is known from a resolution of Aetolians. His name derives from the adj. Αγακλεής (= too glorious)

83. AGASIKLES (Αγασικλής) m ancient Greek
Son of Mentor, from Dion of Macedonia. It derives from the verb άγαμαι (= admire) + Κλέος (=fame). Its full meaning is “the one who admires fame”

84. AGGAREOS (Αγγάρεος) m ancient Greek
Son of Dalon from Amphipolis. He is known from an inscription of Amphipolis (S.E.G vol 31. ins. 616) It derives from the noun Αγγαρεία (= news)

85. AGELAS (Αγέλας) m ancient Greek
Son of Alexander. He was born during the mid-5th BCE and was an ambassador of Macedonians during the treaty between Macedonians and Atheneans. This treaty exists in inscription 89.vol1 Fasc.1 Ed.3″Attic inscrip.”
His name was common among Heraclides and Bacchiades. One Agelas was king of Corinth during the first quarter of 5 BCE. His name derives from the verb άγω (= lead) and the noun Λαός (= people or even soldiers (Homeric)). The full meaning is the “one who leads the people/soldiers”.

86. AGIPPOS (Άγιππος) m ancient Greek
He was from Beroia of Macedonia and lived during middle 3rd BCE. He is known from an inscription found in Beroia where his name appears as the witness in a slave-freeing. Another case bearing the name Agippos in the Greek world was the father of Timokratos from Zakynthos. The name Agippos derives from the verb άγω (= lead) + the word ίππος (= Horse). Its full meaning is “the one who leads the horse/calvary”.

87. AGLAIANOS (Αγλαϊάνος) m ancient Greek
He was from Amphipolis of Macedonia (c. 4th BC) and he is known from an inscription S.E.G vol41., insc. 556
His name consists of aglai- from the verb αγλαϊζω (= honour) and the ending -anos.

88. AGNOTHEOS (Αγνόθεος) m ancient Greek
Macedonian, possibly from Pella. His name survived from an inscription found in Pella between 300-250 BCE. (SEG vol46.insc.799)
His name derives from Αγνός ( = pure) + Θεός (=God). The full meaning is “the one who has inside a pure god”

89. ATHENAGORAS (Αθηναγόρας) m ancient Greek
General of Philip V. He was the general who stopped Dardanian invasion in 199 BC. His name derives from the verb αγορά-ομαι (=deliver a speech) + the name Αθηνά (= Athena).

90. PERIANDROS (Περίανδρος) m ancient Greek
Son of the Macedonian historian Marsyas. His name derives from Περί (= too much) + άνηρ (man, brave). Its full meaning is “too brave/man”.

91. LEODISKOS (Λεοντίσκος) m ancient Greek
He was son of Ptolemy A’ and Thais, His name derives from Λέων (= lion) + the ending -iskos (=little). His name’s full etymology is “Little Lion”

92. EPHRANOR (Ευφράνωρ) m ancient Greek
He was General of Perseas. It derives from the verb Ευφραίνω (= delight). Its full meaning is “the one who delights”.

93. DIONYSOPHON m Ancient Greek
It has the meaning “Voice of Dionysos”. The ending -phon is typical among ancient greek names.

MACEDONIAN WOMEN

94. ANTIGONE f ancient Greek
Usage: Greek Mythology
Pronounced: an-TIG-o-nee
Means ‘against birth’ from Greek anti ‘against’ and gone ‘birth’. In Greek legend Antigone was the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. King Creon of Thebes declared that her slain brother Polynices was to remain unburied, a great dishonour. She disobeyed and gave him a proper burial, and for this she was sealed alive in a cave. Antigone of Pydna was the mistress of Philotas, the son of Parmenion and commander of Alexander the Great’s Companion cavalry (Plutarch, Alexander, ‘The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans’).

95. VOULOMAGA (Βουλομάγα) f ancient greek
Derives from greek words “Βούλομαι (=desire) + άγαν (=too much)”. Her name is found among donators.

96. ATALANTE (Αταλαντη) f ancient Greek
Her name means in Greek “without talent”. She was daughter of Orontes, and sister of Perdiccas.

97. AGELAEIA (Αγελαεία) f ancient Greek
Wife of Amyntas, from the city of Beroia (S.E.G vol 48. insc. 738)
It derives from the adj. Αγέλα-ος ( = the one who belongs to a herd)

98. ATHENAIS (Αθηναϊς) f ancient Greek
The name was found on an altar of Heracles Kigagidas in Beroia. It derives from the name Athena and the ending -is meaning “small”. Its whole meaning is “little Athena”.

99. STRATONIKE f Ancient Greek (STRATONICE Latinized)
Means ‘victorious army’ from stratos ‘army’ and nike ‘victory’. Sister of King Perdiccas II. “…and Perdiccas afterwards gave his sister Stratonice to Seuthes as he had promised.” (Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, Chapter VIII)

100. THETIMA f Ancient Greek
A name from Pella Katadesmos. It has the meaning “she who honors the gods”; the standard Attic form would be Theotimē.

HISTORIC MACEDONIA=GREECE,
HERE IS THE HOMELAND OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

HISTORIC MACEDONIA=GREECE,

HERE IS THE HOMELAND OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT.