The Derveni krater,  Discovered in 1962 in a ancient macedonian tomb 2 at Derveni, a settlement close to Thessaloniki.
Archeological Museum of Thessaloniki, Macedonia(Greece)

The Derveni krater,  Discovered in 1962 in a ancient macedonian tomb 2 at Derveni, a settlement close to Thessaloniki.

Archeological Museum of Thessaloniki, Macedonia(Greece)

Amfipolis, Macedonia(Greece), new caryatis discovered.

Αποκαλύφθηκαν ολόκληρες οι Καρυάτιδες ύψους 2,27μ. (ΦΩΤΟ)

Με την αφαίρεση τριών σειρών από τους πωρόλιθους του τοίχου σφράγισης, μπροστά από τον δεύτερο διαφραγματικό τοίχο, αποκαλύφθηκαν ολόκληρες οι Καρυάτιδες, οι οποίες έχουν ύψος 2,27μ.

Φορούν ποδήρη χιτώνα και μακρύ κροσσωτό ιμάτιο με πλούσιες πτυχώσεις.Φέρουν κοθόρνους, οι οποίοι είναι διακοσμημένοι με κόκκινο και κίτρινο χρώμα, ενώ τα ακροδάχτυλα των ποδιών τους έχουν αποδοθεί με εξαιρετική λεπτομέρεια.

Στέκονται επάνω σε μαρμάρινα βάθρα μήκους 1,33μ. και πλάτους 0,68μ., τα οποία έχουν αποκαλυφθεί, προς το παρόν, σε ύψος περίπου 0,30μ. Η όψη των βάθρων είναι  διαμορφωμένη με στέψεις και ορθοστάτες. Ακολουθούν δηλαδή, τον τύπο της μαρμάρινης επένδυσης  των τοίχων όλων των θαλάμων.

Η απόσταση μεταξύ των δύο βάθρων είναι 1,68μ., όσο και το θυραίο άνοιγμα του πρώτου διαφραγματικού τοίχου με τις Σφίγγες. Στην επιφάνεια του βάθρου της ανατολικής Καρυάτιδος, διακρίνεται κόκκινο χρώμα. Επίσης, κατά την αφαίρεση της αμμώδους επίχωσης πλησίον των Καρυάτιδων βρέθηκαν τμήματα των χεριών τους.

Η πρόσβαση στον τρίτο χώρο του μνημείου για την τοποθέτηση αντιστήριξης- υποστύλωσης και η συνέχιση της ανασκαφικής διαδικασίας προετοιμάζεται συστηματικά με παράλληλες ενέργειες , οι οποίες βρίσκονται σε εξέλιξη.

Αποφασίστηκε από την διεπιστημονική ομάδα η είσοδος στον τρίτο χώρο, να μην γίνει από την οπή στο άνω δυτικό μέρος του τρίτου διαφραγματικού τοίχου, αλλά διά της αρχαίας εισόδου. 

Μιλώντας πάντως νωρίτερα στο Μέγκα, η γγ του υπουργείου Πολιτισμού, Λίνα Μενδώνη ανέφερε ότι υπάρχουν  ενδείξεις για την ανακάλυψη και τέταρτου θαλάμου στο ταφικό μνημείο, καθώς θύρωμα στον τέταρτο διαφραγματικό τοίχο εντόπισαν οι αρχαιολόγοι στην Αμφίπολη.

It is important to note that prior to the 19th century a vast number of depictions and definitions of “Macedonia” were published that did not include Skopje or much of F.Y.R.O.M’s current geography. In other words, for most of history since antiquity, most of the geography of F.Y.R.O.M was never considered to be a part of “Macedonia”.

ANCIENT GREECE - HELLAS - ΕΛΛΑΣ.

The civilization of the ancient Greeks grew up around the Aegean Sea and spread through the Greek mainland. At its height it extended to Sicily and Italy on the west, and through Asia Minor and around the end of the Mediterranean Sea to the east and south. The Greek world, called Hellas by the Greeks, was united culturally, but never politically. It was not brought under a single government until it became part of the Roman Empire in the second century B.C.

Greek civilization arose along the shores of the Aegean and Ionian seas. Ancient Greece consisted chiefly of a peninsula that separated the two seas, nearby islands, and the coast of Asia Minor (now part of Turkey).

Greek civilization developed later than that of the Euphrates and Nile valleys, but earlier than that of Rome. Ancient Greece reached its highest point of achievement in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., but its influence remained strong throughout the era of Roman supremacy.

The Greeks are the most celebrated people of antiquity because their accomplishments form the basis of Western civilization. Vigorous, adventuresome, and freedom-loving, of strong practicality and great intellectual capacity, they produced art, architecture, literature, drama, and philosophic concepts that have never been surpassed. The Greeks developed the political institution of democracy, established freedom of speech and religion, and founded a system of law defining the rights of citizens. They made major discoveries in astronomy, physics, mathematics, and medicine. The first experimental scientists were Greeks.

The Greeks worshipped many gods and goddesses, each representing either some part of the universe (such as the sea or the underworld) or some aspect of human life (such as love or war). They believed that these gods frequently intervened in human affairs, and they turned to the gods for aid and revelations. Many Greek myths tell of adventures of the gods and their dealings with humans. The names of the Greek gods and many of the legends about them have survived to become part of Western tradition.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece

Ancient Amfipolis, Macedonia(Greece)

From Italy to Turkey through Greece, Via Egnatia Highway, the ancient Roman road.

Epirus-Macedonia-Thrace (Greece)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filippoi

Fhillipi, Kavala-Macedonia (Greece)

Filippoi (Greek: Φίλιπποι, Philippi), is a village and a former municipality in the Kavala regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece. The ruins of ancient Philippi are located in the municipal unit.

The most important cultural event of the town is its annual festival, held since 1957. It takes place in the Ancient Theatre of Filippoi during the high season with ancient and modern performances, ballets and concerts by theatrical troupes, orchestras and bands.

Macedonia’s” Historic Borders - misconceptions

Nationalists from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia along with their diaspora cohorts constantly advertise maps which depict what they claim is “historic Macedonia”.

There are numerous examples of such maps posted in all sorts of nationalist “Macedonian” websites and forums.

This is an example of such a map:



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Notice the legend in the map above which defines the “historic borders”, and notice that these borders encompass territory that belongs to Greece and Bulgaria.

So, how “historic” are these borders? Nationalists from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia along with their diaspora cohorts will allege that “Macedonia” has been defined with such boundaries for dozens of centuries. This is, afterall, what they have been led to believe by their own state sponsored institutions including the education system in F.Y.R.O.M. The following map, taken from a F.Y.R.O.M school text book, illustrates how Macedonia was defined and populated circa the period of the Slavic Migrations (6th-7th century AD):

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Taken from: Grade 7 History, Natural Sciences and Mathematics. Skopje 1992, page 155

In reality, these boundaries as well as the notion of a “Macedonian” ethnicity were unknown at the time (circa 7th century AD)! The implication of this misinformation and propaganda is that we now have a whole generation of people in F.Y.R.O.M believing that “Macedonia” existed as an ethno/social entity defined by borders that have remained roughly the same for millenia! From this they conclude that Greece and Bulgaria are occupying territory that rightfully belongs to a “Macedonian” nation. In reality a consensus on their definition of “Macedonia” was only established in the 19th century. Even academics from Skopje concede this fact in their publication “Macedonia and its Relations With Greece” published in 1993:

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So much for “Historic Boundaries”!! Unless of course 100+ years, in the context of Balkan history, is supposed to be “historic”!

The geographic region of Macedonia has never belonged to a “Macedonian” nation or ethnos, has never been part of a “Macedonian” state and the geographic descriptor “Macedonian” did not have any ethnic signficance until certain Balkan states manufactured and promoted a “Macedonian” identity in the late 19th century. As a matter of fact, prior to the 19th century there were a vast number of depictions of Macedonia produced that did not even include most of the geography that F.Y.R.O.M is located on today:

Example 1: 1747 DG. De L’Isle. Nova et accurata Regni Hungariae Tabula, ad usum Serenissimi Burgundiae Ducis.

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Notice how “Macedoine” is depicted as part of the geography of “Grece”

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Example 2: 1651 - A depiction of “GRAECIA” (Greece) by the cartographer J. Janssonius.
This depiction of Macedonia hardly coincides with the version being peddled by FYROM’s institutions today:

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Example 3: During the Byzantine period “Macedonia” was defined as an administrative province called a ‘Theme’. The following map depicts the contemporary Byzantine themes including theme of Macedonia. F.Y.R.O.M’s current geography is located in what was the Byzantine theme of BULGARIA!

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Example 4: Ptolemaic Map produced in 1480. Notice that the depiction of Macedonia hardly coincides with the current geography of F.Y.R.O.M

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Example 5: G. Mercator. Macedonia and Epirus 1609. The depiction of Macedonia barely overlaps the current geography of F.Y.R.O.M.

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Example 6: Macedonia Alexandri M. Patria - Janssonius à Waesberghe ,ca. 1684. Notice that the depiction of Macedonia barely touches the current geography of F.Y.R.O.M:

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Example 7: Macedonia, Epirus et Achaia. - Blaeu ,1659-72. Notice that the depiction of Macedonia barely overlaps the current geography of F.Y.R.O.M.

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Example 8: Nova Totius GRAECIAE descriptio - Mercator-Hondius-Jansson ,ca. 1633. Notice that the depiction of Macedonia not only barely overlaps the current geography of F.Y.R.O.M, the geography of Macedonia is also depicted within the cartographer’s contemporary definition of ‘Greece’.

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As usual, claims from official F.Y.R.O.M sources have no basis in fact or reality. Macedonia surely did not have static boundaries for centuries on end. As shown above, even academics from Skopje concede that the modern geographic definition of “Macedonia”, as espoused by nationalists from F.Y.R.O.M, was established during the 19th century. Prior to the 19th century most of F.Y.R.O.M’s current geography, including the region encompassing Skopje, was not included in a vast number of depictions of Macedonia that were produced by European cartographers.

It is important to note that prior to the 19th century a vast number of depictions and definitions of “Macedonia” were published that did not include Skopje or much of F.Y.R.O.M’s current geography. In other words, for most of history since antiquity, most of the geography of F.Y.R.O.M was never considered to be a part of “Macedonia”.

See the reference below

Geographic Dictionary from 1688 

The following excerpts are taking from a geographic dictionary published in 1668. These passages provide the reader with valuable insight into how contemporary European scholars defined “Greece”,”Macedonia”, and “Scopia” during the 17th century. These definitions torpedo the theory advertised by nationalists from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M) which implies that the geographic boundaries of Greece never encompassed the geographic region of Macedonia.

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Excerpt 1 Greece: Notice how the definition of Greece incorporates Macedonia. Also notice how the Byzantine Empire was described as a “Grecian Empire”.



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Excerpt 2 Macedonia: Notice how the definition of Macedonia describes ancient Macedonia as a region of ancient Greece and notice how the excerpt makes reference to Thessalonica and not to “Solun” (“Solun is the Slavbulgarian name nationalists from F.Y.R.O.M use for Thessaloniki)

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Excerpt 3 Scopia: This is the definition for Scopia, known as Skopje today. Skopje is the capital city of F.Y.R.O.M. The most important thing to notice is that Scopia WAS NOT considered to be a part of Macedonia.


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It is important to note that prior to the 19th century a vast number of depictions and definitions of “Macedonia”  were published that did not include Skopje or much of F.Y.R.O.M’s current geography. In other words, for most of history since antiquity, most of the geography of F.Y.R.O.M was never considered to be a part of “Macedonia”.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Bohun

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Bohun,_Edmund_%28DNB00%29

1906 in Monostiri (today Bitola/FYROM) the majority was Greek.
“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), chapter 20.
"The town of Monastir, capital of the vilayet of Monsastir, lies just about half way between Bulgarian and Greek territory. North, the majority of Macedonians are Bulgar, south the majority are Hellenes. The villages meet, cross, and mix in the Monastir vilayet. The reason, therefore, we hear so much about disturbances at Monastir is not because the Turks there are more wicked than Turks elsewhere, but because there is a persistent feud between Greek and Bulgarian political religionists. ….. Monastir is an undistinguished, motley sort of town of some 60,000 nhabitants, 14,000 of them Greek, 10,000 of them Bulgarian, four or five thousand Albanian, two or three thousand Jew, and the rest Turk.”

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), chapter 20.
People of FYROM/Skopje are described as Bulgarians.
150 Book sources about the Bulgarian Origin of FYROM’s Slavs (to be continued)

1906 in Monostiri (today Bitola/FYROM) the majority was Greek.

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), chapter 20.

"The town of Monastir, capital of the vilayet of Monsastir, lies just about half way between Bulgarian and Greek territory. North, the majority of Macedonians are Bulgar, south the majority are Hellenes. The villages meet, cross, and mix in the Monastir vilayet. The reason, therefore, we hear so much about disturbances at Monastir is not because the Turks there are more wicked than Turks elsewhere, but because there is a persistent feud between Greek and Bulgarian political religionists.
…..
Monastir is an undistinguished, motley sort of town of some 60,000 nhabitants, 14,000 of them Greek, 10,000 of them Bulgarian, four or five thousand Albanian, two or three thousand Jew, and the rest Turk.”

“Pictures From The Balkans” by John Foster Fraser (published in 1906), chapter 20.

People of FYROM/Skopje are described as Bulgarians.

150 Book sources about the Bulgarian Origin of FYROM’s Slavs (to be continued)

THE BULGARIAN ORIGIN OF FYROM’S (Skopje) SLAVS AND THE CREATION OF A NEW ETHNICITY BY TITO’S COMMUNIST REGIME (TO BE CONTINUED)

https://archive.org/details/withturksinthrac00ashmuoft

The so called “ethnic (Slav)Macedonians” are not mentioned. People of FYROM/Skopje are described as Bulgarians.

hellenic-macedonia:

1. We speak Bulgarian language and we believed with Bulgarians is our strong power.

2. The Bulgarians in Macedonia. The future of Macedonia is spiritual union of the Bulgarians in Macedonia.

3. The Macedonian Slavs are called Bulgarians.

4. The biggest part of the population are called…